Saki in redwood forest 2002

Saki

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Last updated March 12, 2017


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Adventures | Tree joke | Equipment | Skills and Knowledge | Map Sources | Checklists | Links | Books | Animal Trivia | Animal Trivia Answers | Hiking Trails


 
If you are interested only in hiking trails, please see Hiking Trails and more trails.

Adventures
 
Click on one of the below links to see trip reports of previous adventures.
     Hiking Adventures 2017
     Hiking Adventures 2016
     Hiking Adventures 2015
     Hiking Adventures 2014
     Hiking Adventures 2013
     Hiking Adventures 2012
     Hiking Adventures 2011
     Hiking Adventures 2010
     Hiking Adventures 2009
     Hiking Adventures 2008
     Hiking Adventures 2007
     Hiking Adventures 2006
     Hiking Adventures 2005 and Before

The photo at the top left corner of this page is me in front of a giant sequoia tree in northern California on May 6, 2002.  These trees are truly breathtaking.  Photos don't do them justice.  Though this tree was hollow in the center, it appeared to be quite healthy.

Big trees like this can be seen in some old-growth forests. Old-growth trees are ones that have grown, unimpeded by human activities, as a part of a naturally occurring ecosystem that has existed, undisturbed, since its inception. Some old-growth forests include:
  • Hendy Woods in Anderson Valley in northern California's Mendocino County
  • Humboldt Redwoods State Park in Weott, California: 17,000 acres of old-growth redwoods
  • Olympic National Park in Port Angeles, Washington: Sitka spruce and western hemlock
  • Ottawa National Forest: Sylvania Wilderness in Watersmeet, Michigan: Sugar maple, yellow birch, basswood, and hemlock in 18,000 acres
  • Great Smoky Mountains National Park in Gatlinburg, Tennessee: Half of all documented old-growth forests in the eastern United States (120,000 acres) lie within this park.
  • Five Ponds Wilderness in Ray Brook, New York: Located in Adirondack Park; includes 50,000 contiguous acres of old growth forest, the largest in the Northeast.
  • -from Experience Life, "Ancient Escapes" by Karen Nickel, May 2006


    Tree Joke

    Two tall trees, a birch and a beech, are growing in the woods. A small tree begins to grow between them. The beech says to the birch: "Is that a son of a beech or a son of a birch?" The birch says he cannot tell.

    Just then a woodpecker lands on the sapling.

    The birch says, "Woodpecker, you are a tree expert. Can you tell if that is a son of a beech or a son of a birch?"

    The woodpecker takes a taste of the small tree.

    He replies: "It is neither a son of a beech nor a son of a birch. It is, however, the best piece of ash I have ever put my pecker in."


     
    Equipment

    If you're like me, you have plenty of wet boots after backpacking/hiking in the rain or making those slippery stream crossings. To avoid the mildewy smell, I suggest drying things ASAP. I made my own boot drying rack based on plans I found at free boot rack plans.

    My Gear Recommendations
    Feelmax toe socks. If long hikes make your toes sore, try individual cushioning for each toe. Think if it like a glove for your feet. The CoolMax sport model is made of 80% polyester, 15% nylon, and 5% other fibers to help wick away moisture. Wear these thin socks under your thick wool socks for the ultimate in hiking comfort.

    Fun Gripper Fling Sock. A really fun throwing toy. It appears to be based on an improvised method of throwing hand grenades very far using a sock. This, however, has a soft head that doesn't explode. Keeps camping from getting boring. Made by Saturnian 1 Incorporated.

    Fun Gripper Flyer. This collapsable flying disk is easy to throw, easy to catch, and fits nicely in a backpack. Also keeps camping from getting boring. Made by Saturnian 1 Incorporated.

    I have a Garmin GPSMAP 76CSx global positioning system (GPS) unit. When I'm in the field, I mount a Garmin 25 MCX Antenna on the top of my pack for better reception. I used to own a Magellan but I had problems with both that and the folks in customer service.

    Glowing rope: Kelty Triptease Guyline or PMI Niteline Utility Cord. If you are tired of tripping over nearly invisible tent guylines at night, then this is the stuff for you.

    Hefty One Zip Jumbo one or 2.5 gallon bags. Keep your map dry without having to purchase an expensive map case.

    KwikTwist. An industrial size twist tie able to hold up to 100 lbs. of weight. The interior components consist of a heavy gauge steel alloy wire covered with two (2) millimeters of plastic shielding. The exterior foam is soft and easy for customers to wrap or tie around various objects. KwikTwist will float in water and will withstand UV sunlight. Too many uses to describe.

    There are various waterproof map cases available on the market such as the Omniseal Waterproof Map/Chart Holder. However, if you have much larger maps that need waterproof protection, try using Con-Tact Brand Clear Self Adhesive Laminate. An 18 inch wide 24 foot roll can be purchased at Rite-Aid, Home Depot and other do-it-yourself stores for about $15. This can be a bitch to work with and I've found the best way to use it is to lay it down on a rigid flat surface, sticky side up, then lay the object you want it stuck to on it.

    Pack~Mate Packing System enables one to store items efficiently while keeping them dry. I recommend you take fluffy items such as sleeping bags and clothes and put them in a Pack~Mate. Close it part way then put your weight on it to squeeze out as much air as possible. Then close the bag all the way. Pack~Mate is like a heavy duty giant Ziplock bag but big enough for a sleeping bag. It greatly reduces bulk.

    I got tired of pulling out a pen and notepad to jot down scouting information so instead I bought a Panasonic RR-QR170 Digital Voice Recorder. It is very small and I carry it attached to my pack shoulder strap for easy access. The sound quality is excellent and I've never run out of memory. If only it were waterproof! Then I could use it for kayaking. But I've never had any problem with it getting a little wet on the trail.

    A Platypus or Camelbak hydration system permits you to drink while on the move without having to be concerned about sloshing noises or wasted bulk from half empty canteens. Hooking the drink valve to a retractable badge holder keeps the valve accessible and avoids fumbling to reattach the clip. I had a 2 liter Thermobak Camelbak but the screw on cap for the water bladder leaked after a few months. I also found it quite cumbersome for cleaning and airing out. I've had much better luck with the Platypus which are durable and easy to air out. I easily made a wire drying rack for it out of clothes hangers. The 2 liter Thermobak Camelbak bladder case is made of heavy duty nylon and quite rugged. I found that the 2 liter Platypus Big Zip 2 fits quite nicely in the 2 liter Thermoback Camelbak bladder case. Hence, I found the best of both worlds. I did speak to one mountain climber who told me his platypus froze and broke but that was just one fellow and I don't expect to be out hiking in those conditions so for me personally, I'm not too concerned.

    Power Peg by Reliance. This plastic, lightweight 6 inch or foot long bright yellow tent stake will help ensure your tent remains where you want it. It has both a hook and a hole to secure various types of tents and sells for only 50 cents each as of June 2005.

    REI Quarterdome Tent. This is a great backpacking tent. It isn't ultralight but it is certainly lightweight and will be just fine in a variety of conditions, including a fairly heavy rain. It has 2 doors and 2 vestibules. In my opinion, it is a good all-purpose, durable, backpacking tent that is great for one person or two normal sized people that don't mind being close to each other.

    U-Dig-It folding hand shovel. Big military style e-tools are overkill if you only want to sh*t in the woods while the lightweight plastic shovels will bend if the ground is hard. But the u-dig-it stainless steel folding hand shovel (trowel) is lightweight, compact, and comes with its own belt attachable carrying case. $17.95 at REI as of August 2005. Made by
         U-Dig-It Enterprises, Inc.
         3953 Brookside Lane
         Boise, ID 83714
         Phone: 208-939-8656

    Backpacking boots: Good backpacking boots and good women are hard to find. For years I wore Wolverines which were great for about 10 years. As of 2017, I still think of my Wolverines as my favorite hiking boots, even though they were made for hunting. Of course when it came time to purchase new boots, the model I'd grown to love was no longer in production. That's why I recommend that if you find a pair of boots you really love, buy several pair...unless you like military issue boots which tend to stay around a long time. After that, I bought the Montrail Torre GTX Hiking Boots. The Montrail Torre GTX is rugged, waterproof, and narrow in the heel. I've found most boots to cause blisters at the back of the heel due to friction while walking uphill but these boots have a heel cup that fit me perfectly. The toe area is a little narrow but with the Feelmax toe socks, this is not a problem. As of June 2005, these boots are $155 at REI. After a few years, the narrowness in the toe area became more of an issue (maybe my feet changed) so I retired these boots. My next boots were the EMS Summit GTXII. I found these to be comfortable and heavy duty but the sole came off both boots. At that point, I hadn't been doing much serious hiking but I had owned these boots for a few years so it didn't seem right to return them, especially since I bought them at a going out of business sale. In 2017, I purchased Merrell Yokota Mid Weight. These are my first pair of Merrells though Norma has worn this brand for years.

    Hiking boots: For me, the difference between backpacking boots and hiking boots is mainly durability. If I'm carrying 45 pounds of gear over rocky terrain in foul weather, I want different boots than if I'm just carrying food and water on a dirt trail in nice weather. For several years, I wore Columbia Summit Crest Mid. In 2017, I purchased Merrell Yokota Trail Ventilator. Unlike my backpacking Merrells, these are low tops and not waterproof. Great for not so hardcore hiking.

    SuperFeet insoles are the top of the line brand of shoe insoles. For hiking, the most important piece of equipment is good boots. After that, one might argue the next thing is good insoles. I used the green "Performance" insoles which provide maximum shock absorption. Later, after visiting a podiatrist for plantar fasciitis, I switched to Powerstep ProTech Control 3/4.

    SmartWool socks. These wool socks are pre-shrunk and hence "bachelor-proof" for those of us who sometimes forget to let certain things air-dry.


     
    Skills and Knowledge
     
    Good Hiking Etiquette and Suggestions
    Try to stay on the trail.

    Step off the trail to let horses and bicycles pass.

    Go far off the trail and well away from any water source to take a crap. Be sure to bury it and any toilet paper.

    If going up a steep hill, stay far enough away from the person in front so you have time to react in case they dislodge a rock and it comes rolling towards you.

    If going down a steep hill, stay far enough away from the person in front of you so you don't knock them down if you fall.

    Stay far enough away from the person in front of you so that their walking stick can't reach you if they hold it horizontally behind them.

    Be cautious of getting whacked by a bent tree limb.

    Remain in visual distance of the person in front and behind you unless you have radio communication.

    Tell the leader to stop or slow down if you start to lose visual contact unless you have radio communication.

    If you have radio communication, perform regular radio checks. The lead person or the leader should have one radio and the sweep should have one also. If you lose radio communication, regroup.

    Make sure someone is at any splits or turns in the trail so that others behind know where to head.

    At least one person in the group should have a first aid kit.

    If you have a first aid kit, make sure others know you have it and where it is should you become a casualty.

    Make noise in bear country.

    Take regular water breaks.

    Bring more water than you need.

    Drink before you get thirsty and put on sunscreen and/or insect repellent before you really need it.

    Don't flip over large rocks and logs. That's where snakes often like to hike.

    Allow yourself plenty of time to finish the hike before dark.

    Check for ticks after the hike.

    Suncreen and Insect Repellent
    While there are currently alternatives to insect repellents containing N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), I have yet to test them out. DEET remains one of the most effective means of repelling unwanted pests...but that doesn't include the sleazy drunks at the singles bars.

    If using DEET, look for repellents that contain up to 30% of this ingredient. Use less than 10% DEET for children. In high concentrations over several days' exposure, DEET can cause insomnia and mood disturbances. Spray on clothes and exposed skin, then wash off once indoors. One can also treat clothes with permethrin [5].

    The Center for Disease Control and Prevention doesn't recommend combination products with both insect repellent and sunscreen because "sunscreen requires frequent application while DEET should be used sparingly." If you need both, apply your sunscreen first and allow it to dry before putting on the repellent. This reduces DEET absorption, though it may increase the passage of oxybenzone (a common sunscreen ingredient) through the skin [6].

    Repel Lemon Eucalyptus is reportedly the most effective natural mosquito repellent as of June 22, 2006 but for me personally, it isn't all that effective. But it is better than nothing and I think effectiveness may vary depending on the individual.

    There are various insect repellents that are not advertised as such. Some of these are just things folks told me about and I have no data from scientific study to back any of it up. Feel free to send me your suggestions.
  • Avon Skin-So-Soft: Lots of military folk recommend this to keep away sand fleas. Unfortunately (if you're a dude), it may make you smell pretty.
  • Vics Vapor Rub: Just a dab here and a dab there.
  • Lysterine: Cheaper than bug spray but washes off easily.
  • Tobacco: A good reason to smoke.
  • See the bottom of Repel Lemon Eucalyptus for other products such as fennel, thyme, clove oil, celery extract, neem oil, vitamin B1, and garlic. Some of these work and some don't. I tried taking vitamin B1 and garlic oil supplements for about 4 months daily. For me, it made absolutely no difference. Mosquitos still found me delicious.

    Ticks
    Deer ticks transmit Lyme Disease, a potential debilitating illness. At the nymph state of a deer tick's life, it's abou the size of the dot over this i. This is when they're most likely to pass on the disease. In 2000, 17,730 Americans were diagnosed with Lyme Disease [5].

    If you've been bitten by a tick, grasp the tick down near its "head," as close to your skin as possible, and gently pull straight out. Mark the date you got the tick bite on the calendar. Call the doctor is you develop a rash, fever, fatigue, aches, headache, or joint pain. These could be signs of several tick-borne infections. Should you develop any mysterious symptoms within a month of a bite, tell your doctor about the encounter. Lyme Disease typically produces a red bull's-eye rash at the site of the bite but a solid red or mostly red rash can also signal the disease [5].

    The northeasten, mid-Atlantic (e.g. Maryland), upper-midwestern regions, and Northern California are known hot spots for Lyme Disease [5].

    I've found the tick nipper tool particularly helpful in removing ticks. I carry one in my first aid field kit and have used it multiple times.

    Also see
         The Insect Repellent DEET
         Lyme Disease

    Map and Compass Basics
    You've probably heard the term dead reckoning but did you know that it is short for "deduced reckoning?" Surprisingly, it isn't a last resort method of navigation where vultures start circling you [1].

    Not all norths are equal
    True north is the direction of the north star.
    Grid north is the direction of the north pole. The difference between true north and grid north is very small and for the most part can be ignored. Many maps won't mention grid north.
    Magnetic north and compass north are the same. They are the north as indicated by your magnetic compass. This value typically differs slightly from the true north [1] [3].
    Peter North is a porn star and has nothing to do with navigation or hiking.

    Some maps will show concentric circles with degree markings. The outer circle shows the true north and shows a star above the north indicator. The inner circle shows the magnetic north. Check the degree marking of the inner circle directly below the zero degree indicator of the outer circle. Account for annual increase over time. For Baltimore, this value is approximately 11 degrees of westerly variation as of the year 2000, with only 5 minutes of annual increase (a negligible amount for hiking or kayaking). The difference between magnetic north and true north is also known as magnetic declination or the G-M angle. If you are fortunate enough to live on the longitude line that passes just east of Florida or through Lake Michigan, then you live on the agonic line, which is where the variation is zero [2].

    Given true north, ADD the variation to obtain the magnetic north.
    Given magnetic north, SUBTRACT the variation to obtain the true north.

    Examples:
    Given a true (grid) reading of 180 degrees with 11 degrees variation, the equivalent compass reading is 191 degrees.
    Given a magnetic (compass) reading of 345 degrees with 11 degrees variation, the equivalent true (grid) reading is 334 degrees.

    Pace Count
    Sometimes, you won't have terrain features you can easily identify on a map. Or, visibility might be poor. So how do you estimate the distance you've traveled? The answer: pace count.

    Measure off a distance and count the number of paces (counting each time the left foot hits the deck) it takes to walk that distance. Also, record your time. Walk at the speed you would normally travel on a moderate distance hike. A quarter mile track is a good distance that has been accurately measured. Wear the clothes and equipment you normally would wear while hiking. Ideally, you would want to measure your pace count multiple times and take the average. Record the conditions when you recorded your pace count and know that things like rougher terrain, very high elevation, and carrying more equipment will increase your pace count. Finish where you start to help normalize for elevation changes.

    My pace count
    As of summer 2006, my pace count with a light (20 pound) backpack on a flat, paved, road was 75 for 100 meters at a moderate pace. Interesting how it changes with time (I'm getting slow in my old age), terrain, weather, etc.

    It helps to keep a log of various hikes so that you know your capabilities and limitations:

    Date and time: 1745, March 31, 2005
    Weather: 52 degrees Fahrenheit, 74% humdity, no noticeable wind
    Equipment: 35 pounds of gear carried in an all-purpose lightweight carrying equipment (ALICE) pack
    Terrain: Paved sidewalks in Arbutus. One small hill but otherwise flat.
    Physical condition: Lifted weights at with legs 8 hours prior at moderate intensity but otherwise felt fresh.
    Distance: One mile
    Pace count: 1005
    Time: 17 minutes 53 seconds
    Pace: 3.355 mph (moderate) Notes: Pace could easily be sustained for 5 miles

    Date and time: 1930, August 30, 2005
    Weather: 80 degrees Fahrenheit, 81% humidity, 12 mph wind from the southeast
    Equipment: 50 pounds of gear carried in an all-purpose lightweight carrying equipment (ALICE) pack
    Terrain: Paved sidewalks in Arbutus. Four hills of various sizes encountered.
    Physical condition: Did a light leg weight training workout 24 hours prior and took an afternoon nap same day as hike.
    Distance: 5.65 miles
    Clothes: 7 pounds once completed. Soaked to the bone in sweat; cotton.
    Time: 1 hour and 45 minutes
    Pace: 3.229 mph (moderate pace)
    Notes: Friction at the back of the foot just above the heel not noticeable with a lighter pack was felt with the heavy pack. Athletic tape placed over this area prior to walking prevented red spots. Soreness in neck encountered. Most likely need to exercise neck and trapezius muscles. Tighter pack belt could have shifted some of the weight in the pack to the hips thereby reducing weight on the shoulders.

    Date and time: 2100, September 7, 2005
    Weather: 64 degrees Fahrenheit, 66% humidity, no noticeable wind
    Equipment: 42 pounds of gear carried in an external frame REI aluminum pack
    Terrain: Paved sidewalks in Arbutus. Four hills of various sizes encountered.
    Physical condition: No exercise for 2 days. Just finished a very long day at work.
    Distance: 4.35 miles
    Clothes: 4.5 pounds dry clothes.
    Time: 1 hour and 14 minutes
    Pace: 3.527 mph (somewhat fast)
    Notes: Balls of feet sore. Faster pace really had an effect on foot comfort. Tight pack belt helped take weight off shoulders. Neck a bit sore though that was probably partly because it was dark and I often had to look down.

    Date and time: 1345, October 9, 2005
    Weather: 63 degrees Fahrenheit, 82% humidity, no noticeable wind
    Equipment: 50 pounds of gear carried in an external frame REI aluminum pack
    Terrain: Paved sidewalks in Arbutus. Four hills of various sizes encountered.
    Physical condition: Fresh.
    Distance: 5.65 miles
    Clothes: No cotton.
    Time: 1 hour and 43 minutes
    Pace: 3.29 mph (moderate pace)
    Notes: Pack with 30 pound weight, one Duraflame log, and 2 liters of water carried in a Camelbak nylon case totals 50 pounds. Boot insoles not providing as much cushion as when first purchased. Probably time to replace. Soreness at ball of right foot.

    Pack Weights
    When hiking with a slower person or hiking for conditioning, you can add weights to your pack to get the desired effect. Iron weights will work but make sure they are wrapped in a towel before you place them in your pack. The last thing you want is the corners of an iron object rubbing up against and weakening the nylon of your pack. Throwing in a few extra water bottles is a great way to weight your pack. The large flexible bladders are best since they will conform to the shape of your pack and hence keep from sliding around. Best of all, if you decide you later don't want the weight, you can just dump it out. Another alternative is to use Duraflame logs. Their shape is perfect for carrying at the bottom of your pack. They are just the right width to keep from sliding and each weights about 5.5 pounds each.

    Conversions
  • One mile = 5280 feet = 1760 yards = 1609.344 meters -> pace count: 1005 -> time: 17:53 -> speed: 3.36 miles per hour
  • 100 yards -> pace count: 57 -> time: 1:01
  • 100 feet -> pace count: 19 -> time: 0:20
  • One kilometer -> pace count: 620 -> time: 11:10 -> speed: 5.37 kilometers per hour
  • 100 meters -> pace count: 62 -> time: 1:07
  • One nautical mile -> pace count: 71 -> time: 20:35 -> speed: 2.92 knots (Just in case I tried to walk on water)

  • Ridding yourself of skunk smell
    If you, your pet, and/or your clothes are sprayed by a skunk, wash in the following formula to remove the scent:
  • 2 pints hydrogen peroxide
  • 0.25 cup baking soda
  • 2 tablespoons liquid dish detergent
  • 1 pint tomato juice
  • Mix ingredients just before washing and leave on for 15 minutes [4].

    Paraffin wax balls
    Buy paraffin wax bricks at art supply store.
    Melt the wax in double boiler.
    Add a lot of dryer lint.
    Spoon mixture into paper egg carton and let harden.
    Remove/cut individual balls with paper from egg carton in tact.
    To use, peel off a piece of paper or lint then set ablaze.
    It should burn for up to 20 minutes.
    Also consider adding piece of cannon fuse during the drying process to be used as a wick.

    Miscellaneous hiking notes
    35-60% of all runners and walkers have weak feet [3].

    Approximately 15% of all people have unequal left and right legs [3].

    Hiking on a rough but level terrain burns about 50% more calories than walking on a paved road. This is great for burning fat but possibly bad if you are trying to conserve your food [3].

    Ascending a 14 degree slope requires almost 4 times the effort as traveling on flat terrain. Similarly, every 15 meters of elevation gain takes about as much time as running 100 meters on level ground. Use this rule of thumb to estimate if it is faster to go over or around a hill [3].

    At 10,000 feet above sea level, the blood may carry as much as 15% less oxygen than normal. This may result in headaches, fatigue, and shortness of breath [3].

    You undoubtedly know the importance of wearing a hat in cold weather. The reason is that at least 40% of body heat eascapes through the head [3].

    Honeybees are attracted to perfume, yellow and orange colors, and flowered patterns [5].

    To keep yellow jackets away from a picnic area, try sharing. Set a plate of food scraps and a cup of soda away from your table [5].

    Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac contain an irritant called urushiol. Tecnu is an anti-poison ivy lotion. A recommended product for drying up blisters resulting from urusiol is Derma Pax [3].

    Sources
    [1] A 2005 class taught by the Coast Guard Auxiliary, Flotilla 12 called "GPS for Mariners."
    [2] "Chesapeake Bay Chartbook, 7th Edition" by ADC
    [3] "Orienteering: The Sport of Navigation with Map and Compass" by Steven Boga. Published by Stackpole Books in 1997.
    [4] "Tug Hill: A Four Season Guide to the Natural Side" by Robert McNamara. Published by North Country Books.
    [5] "Splat!: How to Beat the Bugs of Summer" by Ingrei Chen. Published in Reader's Digest, July 2002.
    [6] "The People's Pharmacy" by Joe and Teresa Graedon, Ph.D., Spectrum, July 5, 2005



    Map Sources

    Inquiries of maps for specific locations can be directed to
         U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
         National Cartographic Information Center
         507 National Center
         Reston, VA 22092

    For areas east of the Mississippi River, including Minnesota, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands write to the
         Branch of Distribution
         U.S. Geological Survey
         1200 South Eads Street
         Arlington, VA 22202

    For areas west of the Mississippi River, including Alaska, Hawaii, Louisiana, Guam, and American Samoa, write to the
         Branch of Distribution
         U.S. Geological Survey
         P.O. Box 25286
         Federal Center
         Denver, CO 80225

    Also be sure to ask the USGS to send you a free state index that identifies the topological (topo) maps by name on a grid of the state. Be sure to order a pamphlet which explains the symbols common to all topo maps [3].

    For maps of national forests, write to the
         U.S. Forest Service Information Office
         Room 3238
         P.O. Box 2417
         Washington, DC 20013

    Some of my favorite maps are those created by ADC.

    DeLorme makes some excellent state maps depiciting a variety of outdoor recreation locations and activities.

    If you only want to know how to get someplace, check out
         Google Maps
         Mapquest
         Yahoo Maps



    Checklists

    It's easy to forget things when you're packing. That's why I like to keep a checklist for various occassions. These are just ideas to keep you from forgetting things you might need. Don't think I'm suggesting you need to bring everything I list.

    Day Hike: Anywhere from a stroll in the park to a 20+ mile forced march.

    Water: This is just a rule of thumb for me only. It will of course vary for individuals. Better to carry more than needed if uncertain.
    • One quart for 5 miles or less with moderate temperatures, hiking at a comfortable pace, carrying light weight.
    • One additional quart for each additional 5 miles under the same conditions (e.g. 2 quarts for 5.1-10 miles, 3 quarts for 10.1-15 miles).
    • An additional quart for each of the following conditions: very hot weather (heat index 95+ degree) or carrying a good amount of gear (30+ pounds). Hence, if I am backpacking in moderate temperatures and traveling 13 miles, I would bring 3 quarts of water. If it is hot, I'll bring 4 quarts.
    • An efficient means of carrying the water. See Camelbak versus Platypus. I prefer the Platypus over the Camelback because it is easier to air out and clean.
    Food: Another rule of thumb from me.
    • 600 calories for every 2 hours with moderate temperatures, hiking at a comfortable pace, carrying minimal weight.
    • Be sure to include complex carbohydrates, protein, and fat. A large percentage of the calories consumed should be in the form of complex carbohydrates. A few simple carbohydrates are fine but the bulk of the carbs should come from the complex.
    • 200 additional calories if moving at a fast pace or carrying a good amount of gear.
    • Leave bulky food with few calories at home. Instead, pack calorie dense, low maintenance foods if space is of concern. Nuts, jerky, and trail mix are perfect for this. Tortillas are better than bagels. Meals Ready to Eat (MREs) are calorie dense, well balanced, and last for years if unopened. After shipping, MREs cost $6.58 each if ordered by the case (as of 2004).
    • See food survey for more information.
    Good boots with a hard sole and ankle support. Insulated and water proof boots are best for cold/wet conditions.

    Good socks along with a spare if going on a long hike. Wool or wool/blend socks are best. I prefer SmartWool brand socks. If hiking in wet conditions, consider wearing waterproof socks, or at least bring them along in case your waterproof boots prove unreliable. Having cold feet really sucks ass.

    Sock liners. I prefer Feelmax Toe Socks. They give each of my toes an individual compartment to prevent them from rubbing together.

    Long trousers if moving on a poorly maintained trail or going off trail.

    Boot bands/springs for your long trousers and tall boots if moving in tick country. Gaitors work if you don't have tall boots but they tend to look silly. Better to look silly than to get lyme disease or Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    Speaking of gaitors, they often come in handy for stream crossings or when hiking through wet grass. Easy stream crossings might only need waterproof boots. More difficult stream crossings are aided by gaitors. Even more difficult crossings may require sandals or a change of socks.

    If you have big thighs, consider wearing spandex or Under Armour under your trousers/shorts to prevent unnecessary friction between your thighs.

    For cold/wet conditions, avoid cotton. Remember that your insulation is useless if it is wet unless it is neoprene. Similarly, while cotton is cool, it also takes a long time to dry which could make it less than ideal in hot, sweaty conditions where you want to dry off quickly.

    For wet conditions, Gore-Tex or one of the similar waterproof/breatheable products is good. Regular plastic (or otherwise unbreatheable) raingear may make you sweat so much that you might just as well get wet from the rain. But in heavy rain or cold conditions, the unbreatheable raingear is sometimes best. The breatheable stuff loses its waterproofness once it gets old or if it isn't maintained proprerly. Be sure to care for your breatheable fabric properly. See How to Take Care of Gore-Tex. For a light rain, I've known people to hike with an umbrella.

    Wearing Under Armour exposed is fine as long as you are on a clear trail. Under Armour snags easily.

    A hat keeps the sun out of our eyes, provides sun protection to our face, and helps retain heat.

    Sunscreen. Doctors recommend at least SPF 30. Don't forget the tops of your ears and the part in your hair if you don't wear a hat.

    Insect repellant. In Maryland, you should at least bring this during daylight savings time. Better to have it and not need it than to need it and not have it. If you don't want to bring a whole bottle, bring Off Deep Woods Towelettes.

    Gloves or mittens in cold weather. A waterproof shell with a liner works best. If these two parts are separate, then you can throw the insulation in the washing machine while preserving the durability of the shell.

    Sunglasses. Recommended on a bright day but required in snow country on a sunny day.

    Bandana to keep the sweat out of your eyes and to look cool (required for me but optional for everyone else).

    Snot rag (handkerchief).

    Hair ties if you have enough to tie back. Always bring a spare.

    Watch.

    Emergency whistle.

    Photo identification.

    Map of area you are hiking and a waterproof map case if it might rain.

    Other waterproof bags as needed.

    Compass.

    Notepad and pen for taking notes.

    Global Positioning System (GPS) and spare batteries. Don't let having one substitute for basic map and compass knowledge.

    Walking sticks/poles. These take some of the weight off your legs and feet and can help provide better stability.

    Keys to your car if you drove to get where you are. DON'T forget these.

    Money to make an emergency phone call, a cell phone, or a calling card.

    A first aid kit if you are leading the hike.

    Ivy Block to create a barrier between your skin and poison ivy/oak/sumac. Be sure to bring this if there is any chance you will be bushwhacking. Also bring appropriate protective clothing. Be sure to wash off with Zanfel, Tecnu Extreme, or at least a strong detergent (e.g. dish soap) immediately after. And clean anything that might have come in contact with the poison ivy/oak/sumac.

    White athletic tape to cover high friction areas on your feet BEFORE they turn into blisters.

    Camera. Bring a waterproof bag or other suitable storage device depending on the weather conditions. Don't forget spare film and batteries too.

    Knife.

    Toilet paper in waterproof bag.

    Small shovel to bury your toilet paper and number 2. A plastic shovel is fine sometimes but in many climates, the soil will be dense with roots and rocks, making digging with a plastic shovel impossible. Buy a metal one instead.

    Don't forget about Fido. If you have a dog, bring a water bowl, food, a leash, and whatever else you may need. Make sure the place you are hiking allows dog. Also, be sure to maintain control over your pet so he/she doesn't disturb wildlife...or become a victim. You can't always count on events such as those documented in the following photos. It was reported that the polar bear returned every night to play with the huskies.
         Polar bear and dog encounter Polar bear and dog encounter Polar bear and dog encounter Polar bear and dog encounter Polar bear and dog encounter Polar bear and dog encounter

    Trash bag. Don't even think of littering.

    Binoculars if you think there might be something interesting to look at from afar.

    Secure water shoes in case you need to cross a stream that is deeper than the tops of your boots.

    Extra shoelaces. If you're carrying parachute cord, that will work too.

    Two way radio if you expect the groups might start to split up.

    Also keep in mind the journey home. If you're smelly, sticky, and sweaty, you may not want your skin or clothes touching your car's upholstery. Bring a clean towel and/or a change of clothes for the ride home, especially if you caught a ride with someone else. Doing so will increase your chances of being invited back. If it is a long drive, consider bringing a pillow and snacks.

    If you caught a ride with someone else, be sure to compensate them for gasoline plus a little extra for auto maintenance/repair. Or, at least offer to pay for their meal if stopping to dine.

    Car Camping Trip: This assumes you will be camping a short distance from your car and hiking during the day. Plan to pack your food, trash, and toothpaste in your car if you are in bear country. Even if you're not in bear country, it is a good idea to pack away any food since rats will go so far as to make a hole in your pack to get at any munchies. Sleep with a long sleeve shirt and long trousers during warm weather to prevent that uncomfortable sticky feeling. Don't operate zippers near an insect net. An insect net gets easily caught in and ripped by a zipper. Include everything from the Day Hike checklist plus the following.

    Change of clothes: Check the weather and plan for at least 15 degrees colder than the coldest prediction and 15 degrees warmer than the hottest prediction. If there is any chance of rain or snow, expect it.
    • Shower shoes: If there is a public shower available, don't expect it to be clean.
    • Socks: Plan for one pair per day plus a backup pair. Bring a backup pair if you expect damp or cold conditions.
    • Trousers: Wear one and bring another and plan to rotate them every day. If bringing shorts, make sure to have at least one pair of long trousers. If gone for more than 4 days, bring extra trousers or plan to do laundry.
    • Underwear: One for each day.
    • Shirts: One for each day. If wearing sleeveless, make sure to have at least one shirt with short sleeves. If wearing short sleeves, make sure to bring at least one shirt with long sleeves. If wearing long sleeves, make sure to bring an insulated shirt.
    • Belt: If you're not wearing one when you leave, will you need one later?
    • Swim suit and goggles: If you plan on swimming.
    Food and food preparation: The calorie consumption guidelines from the Day Hike checklist holds true if you are on the move but you might want regular morning and evening meals too. I won't go into details as far as what foods to bring but just keep in mind things like space, storage requirements, and preparation. If you're bringing the ice chest and the grill, then these things may not matter much but if you've got a small car already full of gear and other people, then space will be an issue. Meals Ready to Eat (MREs) are great because they require no thinking as far as what to pack and they require no preparation. They're also great for the last minute camper.
    • Utensils.
    • Cookware.
    • Stove.
    • Fuel.
    • Wind shield to prevent minimize heat loss from your stove.
    • Something to clean your cookware and utensils.
    • Things to clean your stove if necessary.
    Tent or covered hammock. If you are certain it will not rain, you can sleep under the stars but I recommend using a mosquito net.

    Tarp roof covering for the common area. This provides shade and a dry area in very light rain.

    Tent stakes.

    Hammer for tent stakes.

    Tent footprint; that's the plastic sheet that creates a waterproof barrier between the bottom of your tent and the ground. Make sure this does not extend beyond the edge of your tent. If it does, it will only draw water to rest under your tent when it rains.

    Sewing/repair kit. Keeps small problems from becoming big ones.

    Sleeping bag.

    Extra blankets if the nights will be colder than your sleeping bag rating.

    Pillow.

    Chair. Mine is a folding tripod chair. If going ultra-light, bring a therma-seat cushion.

    Isomat, therm-a-rest, or foam cushion to place between your sleeping bag and your tent.

    Clothes line and clothes pins so you can let your clothes air/dry out.

    Laundry soap, brush, and/or coins if you plan to wash your clothes.

    Towel and washcloth, preferrably one of those ultra-light, super absorbent camp towels.

    Flashlight or headlamp with spare batteries.

    Lighter or matches.

    Firestarter (such as magnesium) to get a stubborn fire going. Lint also works well.

    Firewood.

    Light stick (e.g. Cyalume) or at least something reflective so you can mark your tent and get back to it easily in the dark.

    Soap.

    Toothbrush, toothpaste, and dental floss.

    Shaving cream and razor. Bring a fresh razor and possibly a spare if you expect to be gone for several days.

    Water bowl, tub, or collapsible tub.

    Proof of auto insurance. On a long trip, you may be asked to drive someone else's car for awhile. Be prepared.

    Alarm clock if you're on an early morning schedule.

    Glasses, glasses case, spare contact lenses (mark left and/or right), contact lens case (mark left and/or right), and contact lens cleaning fluid. Renu Multi-Purpose Solution by Bausch and Lomb with a contact lens case will take up less space and weight than packing saline, contact lens cleaner, disinfectant, and catalyst. If camping someplace cold, be sure to keep solution someplace where it won't freeze. Clean and air out the case once you get home.

    Wet wipes or moist towelettes (same animal).

    Shampoo, conditioner, and detangling comb.

    Dirty laundry bag.

    Dry bag or some other large waterproof bag to keep your dry clothes dry when it rains.

    Book to keep from getting bored.

    Earplugs, so the fellow in the next tent or those drunk college kids don't keep you awake.

    Cash and credit card in case you need supplies, gasoline, or car repairs. Bring auto club card if you have it.

    Prescription medications if you are taking any.

    Feminine hygiene stuff if you're a chick.

    Vitamins.

    Afterwards, be sure to air out your tent, boots, and sleeping bag when you get home.

    Backpacking Trip: Be sure to let someone know where you are going, when you will return, a description of the car that takes you to your embarkation point, any special medical conditions of you and people in your group (e.g. epileptic, asthmatic, or diabetic), and any other important information. See the Day Hike and Car Camping checklists and add the below.

    Water purifier.

    Backpack, preferrably internal frame if going up steep terrain.

    Tie down straps and/or bungee cords.

    Parachute cord.

    Duct tape.

    Carabiner(s). Not sure what you might use it for but I always seem to end up using them for one thing or another.

    To reduce the weight of extra clothes, bring not more than two pairs of trousers/shorts and shirts. You can wear one pair while the other dries at night or on the outside of your pack while on the march. Trousers with zip off legs are great because they double as shorts. On unmaintained trails or trails on which you are unfamiliar, be sure to at least bring a pair of trousers to protect your legs from brush and insects.

    Airtight bag for storing food, trash, toothpaste, and anything else that might attract animals when you are sleeping. Also a rope for tying it up where animals can't get it, a good distance from your tent. We call this a bear bag. When hung, it should be at least 100 feet from your campsite, high enough so a large bear standing upright can't get to it, and hanging from a branch weak enough NOT to support the weight of a small bear...and if you think a bear can't climb a rope, click on the thumbnail below.
         Bear climbing on rope to get to bird feeder

    Signaling and survival gear if you are really out in the boondocks.

    Lightweight food. Consider how long you will be gone. While MREs are a great source of energy, they are also heavy. If you will be near a stream and have a water purifier, it will probably be most efficient to bring some dehydrated food and a stove if you will be out for more than a couple of days.

    Afterwards, be sure to check your scalp and body for ticks and have someone check where you can't.

    Some people believe in bringing all kinds of backups and spare this and that. There are two rules I like when it comes to backpacking. Both are military but each has opposing views.
  • Travel light, freeze in the night.
  • If you can hack it, you can pack it.

  • I also recommend you consider bringing spare water, socks, pen, lighter, film, food, batteries, toilet paper, earplugs, an extra water purifier filter, and iodine pills in case the water purifier breaks. If there will be several people in your group, consider assigning people to bring items that everyone can use. For example, consider bringing two of the following for the whole group: stove, water purifier, shovel, toothpaste, tent stake hammer, athletic tape, camera, and knife. I say two so you'll always have a backup though some people will consider this overkill.

    2006
    Much of my equipment is inexpensive or old. Hence, it isn't lightweight. For me, full backpacking gear weighs 50 pounds. Day clothes with boots weighs another 5.5 pounds. This includes 3 quarts of water, water purifier, 6 MREs, full change of clothes (not counting footwear), tripod chair, Teva sandals, thermal underwear, tent, sleeping bag, isomat, tent hammer, toiletries, first aid kit, waterproof pack cover, parachute cord, dry bag, glasses, bug spray, towel, fire starter, knife, and light. This would be fine for a 2 day backpacking trip in Maryland in spring or fall near a fresh water source. If you're willing to spend money on good equipment or sacrifice some comfort, you can easily get your pack much lighter than mine.

    2008
    I've made quite a few changes in the last year and a half. I've got a new backpack, tent, and sleeping bag. I don't usually carry MREs anymore. I traded the tripod chair for a Therma-seat. Instead of Teva sandals, I carry Crocs. I'm older and my body doesn't like carrying as much weight anymore. It was time to upgrade.


     
    Links
     
    Adventures
    One Day Hike
    How difficult can a one day hike be? Well it can be a lot tougher than anything I've ever done. The longest hike I did is about 23 miles carrying military weapons over hilly terrain at Camp Pendleton, California. But I think this "One Day Hike" is more challenging. Thanks to Carmen for telling me about this and keeping me humble.

    Outward Bound
    Outward Bound delivers high quality educational wilderness expeditions throughout the world. Their trips expose you to adventure, challenge, and the thrill of the unknown - a chance to get out on your own and taste what it feels like to be alive.

    REI Adventures
    Hike, cycle, paddle, trek, climb, cruise. Call 1-800-622-2236 for a free REI adventures trip catalog.

    Backpacking locations in or near Maryland
    Appalachian Trail

    Green Ridge State Forest

    Savage River State Forest
    This place may have considerable regulations.

    Camping links not listed above
    Bears Den Trail Center

    Maryland Campgrounds and RV Parks

    RV Park Reviews
    Even if you're not into recreational vehicles (RVs), you might find useful campground info here.

    Virginia Campground Association

    Hiking trail links probably not listed in hiking trails
    American Discovery Trail

    Civil War Trails - Maryland

    Columbia Association (CA), Maryland - Trails

    Dog Hike Map, Baltimore/Washington Area

    Fat Man Walking
    Hiking on the Appalachian Trail

    Hiking in Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Howard County Recreation and Parks - Trails Maps

    Massanutten Mountain Trail, Virginia

    North Country Trail Association

    Piney Orchard Nature Preserve: Where I saw my first beaver in the wild on May 6, 2007. Very short trails suitable for taking small children.

    Ramsey's Draft Hike

    Tahoe Rim Trail

    Tahoe Rim Trail - GORP

    Trail Link

    Trail Head Finder

    Trails.com

    Equipment/stores
    Adventure Medical Kits

    Back Country Gear

    Backpacker's Pantry
    Camp food

    Bergans of Norway
    Backpacks

    Brigade Quartermasters

    Bug Baffler

    Campmor

    Eastern Mountain Sports (EMS)
  • Annapolis Harbour Center
  •      2554 Solomon's Island Road
         Annapolis, Maryland 21401
         Phone: 410-573-1240
         Hours: Monday through Saturday 1000 to 2100, Sunday 1100 to 1800
    Directions: From the Baltimore beltway (highway 695), take highway 97 south to highway 50 east.
    Take exit 22 to Aris Allen Boulevard (route 665) southeast. Stay in the left lane.
    Turn left into Annapolis Harbour Center.
    EMS is on the left as you enter Annapolis Harbour Center.

    Enertia Trail Foods
    What makes this so good is that they come in pouches that you can add boiling water to so you don't have to get your pots dirty.

    Eureka Tents

    Frugal Backpacker

    GoLite

    Gregory Packs

    Hilleberg Tents

    Hudson Trail Outfitters

    Katadyn
    Water purifiers

    Long Life Food Depot
    Lets you pick your favorite MREs when ordering

    Mountain Sports

    Possum Fur Products

    Princeton Sports
  • Baltimore Store
  •      6239 Falls Road
         Phone: 410-828-1127
  • Columbia Store
  •      10730 Little Patuxent Parkway (across from Howard Community College)
         Phone: 410-995-1894

    Recreational Equipment, Incorporated (REI)
  • Columbia Store
  •      6100 Dobbin Road
         Columbia, Maryland 21045
         Phone: (410) 872-1742
         Hours: Monday through Friday 1000-2100, Saturday 1000-2100, Sunday 1100-1900
         Near the northwest intersection of Dobbin Road and Snowden River Parkway.
    Directions: From highway 95, take route 175 west. Follow for one mile.
    Turn right on Snowden River Parkway. Follow for 0.25 mile.
    Turn left (west) on Dobbin Road. Follow 250 meters then turn right (north) into the parking lot.

  • College Park Store
  •      9801 Rhode Island Avenue
         North of Greenbelt Road (Route 193) and south of highway 95/495
         Hours: Monday through Friday 1000-2100, Saturday 1000-2000, Sunday 1100-1900
         Phone: 301-982-9681
    Directions: From where highway 695 (Baltimore beltway) meets highway 95, take highway 95 south for about 19 miles.
    Take the highway 495 (Washington D.C. beltway) exit (exit 27) west, toward Silver Spring for 0.6 miles.
    Take the highway 95 south exit (exit 25) on the left toward route 1 (College Park) for 1 mile.
    Take the route 1 south (Baltimore Avenue) exit (exit 25B) toward College Park for 1.1 miles. Make sure you are in the left lane by the signal light.
    Turn left onto Edgewood Road, a left oblique turn at the signal. Follow for 0.3 miles.
    Turn right onto Rhode Island Avenue. Follow for 0.1 miles.
    End at 9801 Rhode Island Avenue on the left.
    Notes: About 30 minutes from Arbutus.
  • Timonium Store
  •      63 West Aylesbury Road
         Timonium, Maryland 21093-4102
         Phone: 410-252-5920
    Directions: From where the Baltimore beltway (highway 695) and highway 95 meet, take highway 695 clockwise (north). Take exit 24 to highway 83 (Harrisburg Expressway) north. Take exit 16A to Timonium Road. Turn right at end of the ramp, heading east on Timonium Road. Cross over the railroad tracks.
    Turn right (south) on Aylesbury Road.
    REI is on the right.
    Notes: About 28 minutes from Arbutus in light traffic.

    Rite in the Rain
    All weather writing paper.

    Track 'n Trail
    Footwear

    US Cavalry

    Water Purifiers

    Government organizations
    Department of Natural Resources - Maryland

    Fish and Wildlife Service

    Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation

    Land navigation

    Local outdoor clubs/organizations in the Maryland, Virginia, and Washington D.C. area
    Appalachian Mountain Club

    Capital Hiking Club

    Center Hiking Club

    Columbia Ski Club
    They do some hiking, biking, and other activities in addition to skiing

    Maryland Outdoor Club

    Mid-Atlantic Hiking (Meetup) Group

    Mountain Club of Maryland

    Potomac Appalachian Trail Club (PATC)

    Quantico Orienteering Club

    Sierra Club - Maryland Chapter

    U.S. Hiking Clubs Link

    Miscellaneous
    East Coast Greenway Alliance
    This 2950-mile off-road trail system, the urban sister to the Appalachian Trail, will be a pathway to adventure for walkers, cyclists, skaters, skiers, equestrians, and persons with disabilities.

    Food Storage Chart
    So you'll know how long food will last out of the fridge

    Frisky's Wildlife and Primate Sanctuary, Inc.
    Tours open to the community in Woodstock, Maryland

    Leave No Trace: Center for Outdoor Ethics

    Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac Information Center

    Mid-Atlantic Hikes
    Mike J.'s web page; links to local hikes. In my opinion, this is the most valuable hiking resource for anyone that lives in the mid-Atlantic region.

    Mid-Atlantic Hikes Forums This is Mike J.'s forums page where you can post hike related information or ask question.

    Make Your Own Insect Repellent

    SummitPost: Message board for outdoorsy people

    Trail's End Restaurants
    Recommended restaurants for after the trip

    Trail Pixie

    Watkins Nature Center
    Family oriented nature activities

    Non-local outdoor clubs/organizations
    American Hiking Society: The national voice for America's hikers. Mission: protecting and promoting foot trails.

    Pacific Crest Trail Association

    Park information probably not listed in hiking trails
    Blackwater Falls State Park, West Virginia

    Cedarville State Forest

    False Cape State Park
    Primitive camping in one of the last undisturbed coastal environments on the East Coast

    Fran Uhler Natural Area
    A little over 5 miles of trails along the Patuxent River near Bowie State University.

    George Washington Memorial Parkway

    Great Falls Park (National Park Service)
    Also see Chesapeake and Ohio Canal/Towpath then scroll down slightly to Great Falls

    Greenbelt Park

    Live Once Live Wild
    This website has some great photos and brief descriptions of outstanding natural areas in the United States worth visiting.

    Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge
    Good for seeing bald eagles

    Mason Neck State Park
    Kayak and canoe rental available

    National Park Foundation

    The Nature Conservancy in Delaware

    The Nature Conservancy in Maryland

    The Nature Conservancy in Pennsylvania

    The Nature Conservancy in Virginia

    The Nature Conservancy in West Virginia

    Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority

    Pohick Bay Regional Park
    This website also lists a multitude of links to nearby campsites, parks, and white water paddling sites

    Prince George's County Parks and Recreation

    Rosaryville State Park

    Savage River State Forest

    Virginia State Parks

    Training
    Western Mountaineering

    Wilderness First Aid Classes

    Weather
    Sunrise and Sunset Times

    Wind Chill


     
    Books
     
    ADC
    Maker of high resolution maps.

    DeLorme
    More maps, many specifically for outdoor recreational use.

    Monongahela National Forest Hiking Guide, 8th Edition: An excellent resource!

    Wilderness Press
    A publishing company that specializes in outdoor recreational books.

    Top Trails: Sacramento: Must-Do Hikes for Everyone

    Freezer Bag Cooking: Trail Food Made Simple: I haven't read this so I can't recommend it but it looks interesting.


     
    Animal Trivia


    This really doesn't have to do with hiking but it seems to fit best on this page since so many people who hike also have a fond interest in nature, and hence, wildlife.  See how much (or how little) you know.

    Are you an animal nerd?  You might be if you score 7 or more points on the following test.  No using books, magazines, the internet, other people, etc.  Answers appear in next section.

    1. What is the only naturally occurring marsupial in the United States?
    (1 point for correct answer)

    2. Which of the following are extinct?
    a. Kiwi (the bird, not the fruit)
    b. Snow leopard
    c. Tasmanian Devil
    d. Dodo
    (1 point for each correct answer, -1 for each incorrect answer)

    3. What is the world's largest living lizard?
    a. African crocodile
    b. Komodo dragon
    c. Burmese python
    d. Australian frilled lizard
    (1 point for correct answer)

    4. Which animal is the fastest runner?
    a. Elephant
    b. Grizzly bear
    c. Zebra
    d. Rabbit
    (1 point for correct answer)

    5. Which of the following are amphibians?
    a. Turtle
    b. Lungfish
    c. Frog
    d. Salamander
    (1 point for each correct answer, -1 for each incorrect answer)

    6. Which of the following are omnivores?
    a. Pig
    b. Chicken
    c. Mouse
    d. Wolf
    (1 point for each correct answer, -1 for each incorrect answer)

    7. Which of the following are insects?
    a. Flea
    b. Tick (the type that carries Lyme Disease)
    c. Centipede
    d. Louse
    (1 point for each correct answer, -1 for each incorrect answer)

    8. An animal that is diurnal is
    a. Active at dawn and dusk.
    b. One that does not hibernate in the winter.
    c. Active during the daytime rather than at night.
    d. One whose diet consists of primarily fruit and nuts.
    (1 point for a correct answer)

    9. Next to humans, what mammal is known for making the longest terrestrial treks?
    a. Arctic fox
    b. Polar bear
    c. Wolf
    d. Camel
    (1 point for a correct answer)

    10. What is a monotreme?
    a. An animal that tends to produce only one offspring per litter.
    b. An egg laying mammal.
    c. An animal with 4 limbs that predominantly walks upright.
    d. An animal with only one horn.
    (1 point for a correct answer)

    Tiebreaker (only applies if you are competing with someone else): Give an example of an animal that is a monotreme.


     
    Animal Trivia Answers


    Answers to animal test
    1. possum
    2. d
    3. b
    4. c
    5. c, d
    6. a, b
    7. a, d
    8. c
    9. a
    10. b
    Tiebreaker: platypus or echidna (spiny anteater)

    Jimmy holds the high score at 8 points.

    Sources
    Animal Speeds (now a broken link)
    The Komodo Dragon
    Marsupial Mammals
    What is a Monotreme?

    What is an Omnivore?
    Your Dictionary.com
    "The World of the Fox," a book by Rebecca L. Grambo